Language Work


            Ubykh, (1994-present)

            Ashkharwa Abkhaz, (1994-1995)

            Kubachi, a language of the Northeast Caucasian family (1992)

            Bzhedukh, Abadzakh and Shapsegh West Circassian (1973 - present)

            Kabardian East Circassian (1984 - present)

            Digoron Ossetic (1969-1972)

            Briefly with

                  Khasi (1986)

                  Tamil (1979)

                  Bzyb Abkhaz (1976, 1992, 1993, 1996)

                  Yoruba (1976)

                  Farsi (1974)

                  Tuareg (1973)

                  Dinka (1973)

                  Galla (1972)

                  Georgian (1971)

                  Western Armenian (1969).

Publication List



(in press) (with Walter May and Tamerlan Salbiev) The Nart Sagas of the Ossetians

Madison, Wisconsin: Turko-Tatar Press (approximately 800 pages). 

(2010)  Review of Count Nikolai Tolstoy (2009)  The Oldest British Prose Literature, The Compilation of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi,”  Edwin Mellin Press, vii + 569 pages,  Journal of Indo-European Studies, 50. 

(2009)  Review of Elizabeth Wayland Barber and Paul T. Barber (2004) When They Severed Earth from Sky, How the Human Mind Shapes Myth. Princeton University Press, xv + 290, 44 illustrations, plus an appendix.  Journal of Indo-European Studies, 37: 233 – 46. 

(2008) The Hunters, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 36: 442 -63. 

(2006)  The Functions revisited, a Nart God of War and Three Nart Heroes.  Journal of Indo-European Studies, 34, 1-2: 27-54. 

(2005) Review of Armen Y. Petrosyan (2002) The Indo-European and Ancient Near Eastern Sources of the Armenian Epic, Myth and History. Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph No. 42.  236 pages. Journal of the Society of Armenian Studies, (7 pages). 

(2002) Myths from the Caucasus: the Nart Sagas of the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs.  Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, series "Mythos." (573 pages) 

(1998)  Dumézil and the Details, in Cosmos 14:103-117, special edition devoted to the papers delivered at the session on Georges Dumézil, AAA, December 1998. 

(1994, a) Two Circassian Tales of Huns and Khazars.  Annual of the Society for the Study of  Caucasia,   vol. 3, 1991, pp. 63-75. 

(1994, b) nahrt R&ex@Wez!er - R&ebLan (in Adyghé)[The Nart Hero as Knight], in Asker M. Hadaghat'la and Ruslan G. Khadzhebiekov (eds.) Nart aposemré kavkaz bzés!&éneGémré  [The Nart Epic and Caucasology], Societas Caucasologica Europæa, VIth Colloquium, 23-25 June 1992, Maikop. Maikop, Republic of Adygheya, Russian Federation: Adygheya Publishers. Pp. 64-67. 

(1994, c)  foreword to C. Scott Littleton and Linda Malcor, From Scythia to Camelot, New York: Garland Publishing. Pp. xiii-xx. 

(1992, a) review of "Alan Dundes, Folklore Matters.  Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press, 1989. xii + 172 pp.  (no price)," Anthropologica 34: 269-270. 

(1992, b) review of "Rosemary Lévy Zumwalt, with a foreword by Alan Dundes, American Folklore Scholarship, a Dialogue of Dissent.  Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana: The University of Indiana Press, 1988.  xiv + 186. $35.00 (cloth), $9.95 (paper)." Anthropologica 34: 270-272. 

(1989, a) The Woman of the Myths: the Satanaya Cycle, in Howard I. Aronson (ed.), The Annual of the Society for the Study of Caucasia  2: 3-11. 

(1989, b) Myths from the Forest of Circassia, The World & I, December issue.  The Washington, D.C.: The Washington Times Publishing Corporation.  Pp. 644-651. 

(1989, c) Prometheus among the Circassians, The World & I, March issue.  Washington, D.C.: The Washington Times Publishing Corporation.  Pp. 644-651.           

(1988) "The Narts", and "The Blossom of Lady Satanaya (Hatiquoya West Circassian)" (a Nart saga) on pp. 6 and 9 of Newsletter, of the Kavkaz Cultural Center of California, vol. II, no. 6. 

(1986-7) "Review of The Plight of a Sorcerer. Georges Dumézil.  Edited by Jan Puhvel and David Weeks. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1986. x + 120 pp." Nexus 5: 57-69. Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster University, Department of Anthropology. 

(1984, a) Epic, Nart: North Caucasian, The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet Literature, H. Weber (ed.), vol. 7, pp. 1-14. Gulf Breeze, Florida: Academic International Press. 

(1984, b) "Review of Tekla Dömötör, Hungarian Folk Beliefs. Translated by Christopher M. Hann.  Bloomington, Indiana; Indiana University Press, 1983. Pp. 324. $17.50 (cloth)."Culture 3.2: 73-74. 

(1984, c) Parallels between the Circassian Nart Sagas, the Rg Veda, and Germanic Mythology, in V. Setty Pendakur (ed.), South Asian Horizons, vol. 1, Culture and Philosophy, pp. 1-28.  Ottawa: Carleton University, Canadian Asian Studies Association. 

(1982, a) A Translation of the Nart Sagas, Final Performance Report, to NEH. 24 pages.           

(1982, b) A Translation of the Abaza Nart Sagas, Final Report, to SSHRC.  10 pages. 

(1981) A Translation of the Nart Sagas, Final Report, to NEH. 6 pages.



(in preparation, a) “Post-Glacial, a New Super-phylum Hypothesis for Eurasia,” for Central Eurasian Review. 

 (in preparation, b)  A Reader in Northwest Caucasian Languages, Munich: LINCOM-Europa (208 pages + audio CD) 

(in press) “The Typology of the Gutturals,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Back(ing), Paris, Sorbonne – Nouvelle. 

(submitted), with Adrienne Mayor and David Saunders, “Making Sense of Nonsense Inscriptions Associated with Amazons and Scythians on Greek Vases,” to Hesperia

(2012)  “Vastness Revisted,” LACUS Forum, Linguistic Association of Canada and The United States, Conference Proceedings 

(2011)  “The Storehouse of History, Ancient Ethnonyms and other Names from the Caucasus,” Slavonic and East European Review, pp.  

(2007) Kabardian (East Circassian), Munich: LINCOM-Europa, series "Languages of the World/Materials 200" (122 pages). 

(2006)  “Counter Examples in Linguistics, the Case of Circassian as a Split Anaphor Language, “ Linguistica Atlantica 25. (33 pages) 

(2004, a)  Georgian and Other Caucasian Languages.  Encyclopedia of Linguistics.  London: Taylor and Francis, New York: Routledge.  (6 pages) 

(2004, b) Review of Armen Y. Petrosyan (2002) The Indo-European and Ancient Near Eastern Sources of the Armenian Epic, Myth and History. Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph No. 42.  236 pages, with bibliography and index.  In Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies.

(2003)  More Pontic, Further Etymologies between Indo-European and Northwest Caucasian, in Dee Ann Holisky and Kevin Tuite (eds.), Current Trends in Caucasian, East European and Inner Asian Linguistics, Papers in Honor of Howard Aronson, Amsterdam: E. J. Brill. Pp. 41-60. 

(1998, a)  "Kabardian (East Circassian)," in Peter Rollberg (ed.) [sub-editor for National Languages, John A. C. Greppin], The Modern Encyclopedia of East Slavic, Baltic, and Central Asian Literatures.  (19 pages) 

(1998, b)  "Languages of the Dead," in Victor H. Mair (ed.), The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia. Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph 26 (2 volumes), Institute for the Study of Man, Washington, D.C. and The University of Pennsylvania Museum Publications, Philadelphia. Pages 431- 447. 

(1997)  Phyletic Links between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Northwest Caucasian, The Journal of Indo-European Studies, 25.1-2: 119-151.  [reprint of an article in Howard I. Aronson (ed.), The Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, Linguistic Studies: New Series, University of Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 1992, pp. 19-54]. 

(1996)  "Reflexives and Reciprocals in Circassian, and Other Problems for Government and Binding Theory," in Howard I. Aronson (ed.), NSL. 8, Linguistic Studies in the Non-Slavic Languages of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Republics, University of Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, pp. 83-106. 

(1994, a) Microcosmos: the Circassian Verb, in Howard I. Aronson (ed.), Non-Slavic Languages of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Republics, Linguistic Studies, Second Series, vol. 2, University of Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, pp. 15-54.                                                                                                                       

(1994, b) How to Describe the Sounds of the Northwest Caucasian Languages. H. Aronson (ed.), Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, Papers from the Fourth Conference, Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers, pp.  61-113. 

(1994, c) Proto-Northwest Caucasian, or How to Crack a Very Hard Nut, The Journal of Indo-European Studies 22.1-2: 1-35 [reprint of an article in Howard I. Aronson (ed.), The Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, Linguistic Studies, University of Chicago:  Chicago Linguistic Society, 1989, pp. 20-55].

(1992, a) A Grammar of the Kabardian Language.  University of Calgary Press.  (xxiv + 231 pages). 

(1992, b) How Many Consonants does Ubykh Have?  in Caucasian Perspectives, B. George Hewitt (ed.). Munich: Lincom Europa.  Pp. 145-156. 

(1992, c) Phyletic Links between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Northwest Caucasian, in Howard I. Aronson (ed.), The Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, Linguistic Studies: New Series, University of Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Pp. 19-54  [reprinted in The Journal of Indo-European Studies 25.1-2: 155-187, 1997] 

(1989, a) Proto-Northwest Caucasian, or How to Crack a Very Hard Nut, in Howard I. Aronson (ed.), The Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, Linguistic Studies, University of Chicago:  Chicago Linguistic Society, pp. 20-55.  [reprinted in The Journal of Indo-European Studies 22.1-2: 1-35, 1994] 

(1989, b) East Circassian (Kabardian Dialect). In B. George Hewitt (ed.) The Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus, vol. 2, The North West Caucasian Languages.  Delmar, New York: Caravan Books.  Pp. 261-355. 

(1988) The Northwest Caucasian Languages: a Phonological Survey.  In the series, Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics, Jorge Hankamer (ed.).  New York: Garland Publishing, (xxxi + 480). 

(1985) Pharyngeals and Pharyngealization. International Journal of American Linguistics 51.4: 366-368. 

(1984) Circassian /-qa-/ Meets Semantic Algebra and Ergativity.  Folia Slavica 7: 49-90, H. Aronson and W. Darden (eds.), Papers from the Third Conference on the Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR

(1983, a) "Review of Thomas V. Gamkrelidze and Givi I. Machavariani (1982), Sonantensystem und Ablaut in den Kartwelsprachen. Translated and with an epilogue by Winfried Boeder; Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen, xii-160 p., DM 42,--." Papiere zur Linguistik 29.2: 59-65. 

(1983, b) Fast vs. Slow Languages: comments on the structure of discourse and the evolution of language. Papiere zur Linguistik 28: 27-51. 

(1983, c) Vowel Disharmony: Linguistic Contacts between the Northeastern Altaic, Paleosiberian and North American Indian Peoples, Proceedings of the 31st International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa.  Tokyo. 

(1982, a) Western Circassian Vocalism, Folia Slavica 5: 89-114, H. Aronson and W. Darden (eds.), Papers from the Second Conference on the Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR. 

(1982, b) review of "The Languages of the Soviet Union. Bernard Comrie. Cambridge Language Surveys.  Cambridge University Press, 1981. xx+317 pp." American Anthropologist 84.3: 748-749. 

(1981, a) Typological Parallels between Proto-Indo-European and the Northwest Caucasian Languages.  Bono Homini Donum: Essays in Historical Linguistics in Memory of J. Alexander Kerns, Y. Arbeitman and A. R. Bomhard (eds.), vol. 2, pp. 475-558. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 

(1981, b) Circassian West (Bzhedukh Dialect), The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet Literature, H. Weber (ed.), vol. 4, pp. 156-181.  Gulf Breeze, Florida: Academic International Press. 

(1980)  Caucasian Languages, The Academic American Encyclopedia, pp. 288-289. Princeton, New Jersey: Arête Publishers. 

(1979, a) Phonemic Contrasts and Distinctive Features: Caucasian Examples, in P. R. Clyne, W. F. Hanks and C. L. Hofbauer (eds.), The Elements: a Parasession on Linguistic Units and Levels, Including Papers from the Conference on the Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, pp. 307-321. University of Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.           

(1979, b) Rightward Movement, Question Formation and the Nature of Transformational Processes: the Circassian Case. Papiere zur Linguistik 21: 27-73.

(1979, c) Verbs that Inflect for Kinship. Papiere zur Linguistik 20: 37-66. 

(1979, d) Northwest Caucasian Languages, The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet Literature, H. Weber (ed.), vol. 3, pp. 225-234. Gulf Breeze, Florida: Academic International Press. 

(1977) Languages of the North-West Caucasus, in G. Thomas (ed.), The Languages and Literatures of the Non-Russian Peoples of the Soviet Union.  Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster University, Russian Department.  Pp. 62-154. 

(1975, a)  Syntactic Rule-Ordering in Modern Persian. Wiener linguistische Gazette 9: 3-10 

(1975, b) The Relationship between Aspiration and Nasalization. Wiener linguistische Gazette 9: 11-15. 

(1974, a) Consonants with Advanced Tongue Root in the Northwest Caucasian Languages, in J. Hankamer and E. Kaisse (eds.), NELS V, Papers Delivered at the 5th Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, pp. 153-161. Harvard University: Linguistics Department. 

(1974, b) Rovner, P., J. Makhoul, J. J. Wolf and John Colarusso.   Where the Words Are: Lexical Retrieval in a Speech Understanding System, Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Speech Recognition, pp. 160-164. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie-Mellon University. 

(1974, c) Chronological Rules for Continuous Speech, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.  (145 pages) [Confidential internal document] 

(1974, d) On Two-Vowel Systems, Linguistic Society of America, 27-30 December.  New York.



(2002) Remarks on the Anau and Niyä Seals, Sino-Platonic Papers, no. 124: 35 - 47. 

(1997, a)  Circassians.  Encyclopedia of American Immigrant Cultures, David Levinson (ed.), New York: Macmillan. (13 pages) 

(1997, b)  "Peoples of the Caucasus (overview article)," in Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life.  Pepper Pike, Ohio: Eastword Publications.  (24 pages) 

(1994)  Circassians.  Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David Levinson (ed.), vol. 6, Inner Eurasia and China, Paul Friedrich and Norma Diamond (eds.), Boston, Massachusetts: G. K. Hall & Co. 



(in press) “Abkhazia Twenty Year On,” in Reflections on Abkhazia, Metin Sonmez, editor, 

(2011) Interview in Otkrytaja, 26 July - 3 August, no.29, “Izuchite opyt Shotlandii, eto vam pomozhet,” [Learn from the experience of Scotland; it will help you] 

(2010, a) “What Could have Happened in the Caucasus,” in John Colarusso (editor), Abkhazia.  Istanbul: Friends of Abkhazia. (pp. 53-7). 

(2010, b)  (editor)  Independence of Abkhazia and Prospects for the Caucasus.  Istanbul: Friends of Abkhazia. 

(2010, c) “Russia: The Circassians and the Sochi Olympics,” Oxford Analytica. 

(2009)  Regional Realities in the South Caucasus.  In Ergun Özgur (editor) , Independence of Abkhazia and Prospects for the Caucasus. (10 page paper) 

__________ with Walter Comins-Richmond (2008)  “The Conquest and Deportation of the Circassians,” in Stephen D. Shenfield (ed.) Johnson’s Russia List,  Research and Analytical Supplement, Special Issue:   The Circassians , Issue No. 43 - May 2008, <>. 

(2002, a) “The American Response to September 11th, Its Imperatives and Its Implications,” web page document <> (55 pages). 

(2002, b) “Russia and the Near Abroad, Fault Lines for Conflict,” Atlantic Council of Canada, Annual Forum, (2002), web page document <> (44 pages, 3 maps) 

(2000)  A review of John B. Dunlop (1999) Russia confronts Chechnya, roots of a separatist conflict, Cambridge University Press (xiv + 234 pages), in Canadian Journal of Political Science, pp. 23-26. 

(1999)  The Second Russo - Chechen War as a Cusp Event,  Caspian Crossroads, vol. 4, no. 4, Summer/Fall, US-Azerbaijani Council. Pp. 5-9. 

(1998, a) "Caucasus," in 1997-1998, State of World Conflict Report, Atlanta, Georgia: The Carter Center, pp. 74-75. 

(1998, b) "Chechnia," in State of World Conflict Report, Atlanta, Georgia: The Carter Center, p. 75. 

(1997) The Ethnic Threats to the Caucasian Pipelines, Caspian Crossroads, June 1997, US-Azerbaijani Council. (8 pages) 

(1995, a)  Chechnya: the War without Winners.  Current History, October, vol. 94, no. 594, pp. 329-336. 

(1995, b) Abkhazia.  B. George Hewitt and John Wright (eds.) Central Asian Survey, pp. 75-96.  London: Hurst. 

__________ and Vadim Ogoev, (1995, c)  The “Perfect” American Tragedy: the O. J. Simpson Trial, in Ogonëk, no. 28, August, (1 page). 

(1995, d)  "Galifaks - 95, uroki sammita," [Halifax - 95, lessons of the summit] in Ogonëk, no. 26, June, p. 69. 

(1995, e) review of The North Caucasus Barrier: the Russian Advance toward the Muslim World, Marie Bennigsen-Broxup (ed.) xvii + 252 pages.  London: Hurst & Company, £27.50.  ISBN 1-85065-069-1, Survival, quarterly journal of the International Institute for Strategic Studies.  (3 pages) 

(1991) Circassian Repatriation, The World & I, November 1991 issue. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Times Publishing Corporation.  Pp. 656-669. [translated into Circassian, Russian, Turkish, and Arabic]



(1990) Intelligence and Communication in Psittacines.  In Jacquie Blackburn (ed.) Canadian Parrot Symposium.  Pickering, Ontario: Silvio Mattacchione & Co.  Pp. 72-77. 

(1989) Platypuses, Proof, and Possibilities (Response to Heuvelmans, Bauer, and Krumbiegel and Sehm), Cryptozoology   8: 118-123. 

(1988)Waitoreke, the New Zealand "Otter:" a Linguistic Solution to a Cryptozoological Problem.  Cryptozoology 7: 46-60. 

(1984) Some Thoughts on the Role of Folklore in Cryptozoology, Cryptozoology 2: 90-97. 

(1980) A Wild Man of the Caucasus, in M. Halpin and M. M. Ames (eds.), Manlike Monsters on Trial, Early Records and Modern Evidence, pp. 255-264. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Political Consulting


•  Consulted with US Department of Defense, 2004 – present. 

•  Consulted with Canadian Armed Forces in Kandahar, Afghanistan, 2006 – 2007. 

•  Consultant, RAND Corporation.  January – June, 2006. 

•  Panelist, Roundtable: Chechnya [sic]: Past, Present, Future, Central Eurasian Studies Society – VI, Boston University, 30 September – 2 October 2005. 

•  Consulted with members of RAND Corporation on stability in the Caucasus, February – May 2005. 

•  Advised the Chechen Foreign Minister in exile, Ilyas Akhmadov, 3 December 2004. 

•  Contractual Consultant, responsible for the Caucasus, United States Department of State, 1 April 2001 -31 March 2002. 

•  Advised Foreign Affairs on a continual basis regarding the Caucasus since early 1999. 

•  I advised United States Department of State on possible refugee and humanitarian programs in Chechnia and elsewhere in the North Caucasus.  4 November 1999. 

•  Advised the First Secretary of the Japanese Embassy, Washington, D.C., Dr. Masayuki Miyamoto, on conditions in the Caucasus.  4 November 1999. 

•  Advised State Department and the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (Washington campus, Paul H. Nitze School of Diplomacy), on developments in the Caucasus.  September - November  1999 

•  Served as a diplomatic back channel between the Russians and Chechens regarding deteriorating relations and the prospects for war. September 1999. 

•  Upon request of the Russian Embassy in Washington I advised then Prime Minister Sergei Stepashin about the dangers of renewing conflict with Chechen Fundamentalist Moslems.  June 1999. 

•  Upon request of the Russian Embassy in Washington I have advised President Boris Yeltsin regarding an upcoming meeting between him and President Aslan Maskhadov on ways to strengthen the position of Maskhadov and the secularists in Chechnia, 22 April.  This meeting was never held.  June 1999. 

•  Advised the Chechen Ambassador-designate to the United States, Löma Usmanov, on his country's position with regard to a range of political issues, both regarding relations with the West and with Russia.  3 March (in Ottawa), 4 June (by telephone) 1999. 

•  Discussed Chinese diplomatic overtures and oil politics in Central Asia with the Russian Embassy in Washington.  November 1998. 

•  Upon request the Russian Embassy in Washington I advised Russian Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov regarding negotiations between him and the Chechen president, Aslan Maskhadov, resulting in a successful parley between the two, 8 and 27 October 1998.  August – September 1998. 

•  Advised the Atlantic Council of the United States (NATO) on the Caucasus and Central Asia.  18-20 March 1998.           

•  Advised the Russian Embassy in Washington, D. C., regarding unrest in Chechnia and the neighboring Republic of Daghestan.  8 January 1998. 

•  Advised the Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C., regarding the visit of the Chechen President, Aslan Maskhadov, to the United States, 5-21 November, with particular emphasis on understanding American motives in this sensitive matter and in how best to react to this potentially gross breach of diplomatic protocol and how to avoid serious deterioration in Russian - American relations.  1997.

 •  Memorandum of policy recommendations to Stephen Lee, Director, Canadian Centre for Foreign Policy Development on the Caucasus, Central Asia, and China.  October 1996. 

•  Advised the Chechen "Foreign Ministry" regarding their accord with Moscow.  September 1996. 

•  Advised Aleksandr Lebed, head of the Russian Security Council, regarding negotiations with the Chechens.  August 1996.

•  Wrote memoranda to the Department of State and the National Intelligence Council urging a reappraisal of Aleksandr Lebed.  This led to a reversal of a previous, strongly negative assessment.  My more balanced assessment of him was vindicated by his success in reaching a truce with the Chechens.  It was also influential in that it set the basis for his visit to Washington in November, and to his attendance at President Clinton's inaugural ball in January 1997.  July 1996. 

•  Advised an official, Andreas Weichert, of Foreign Affairs, regarding matters in the Caucasus.  (He was posted to Georgia in January 1997.)   June – December 1996. 

•  Member of The Atlantic Council, Working Group on Policy Formation for Central Asia, The Program on International Security, contributing to an effort to formulate American and Western interests in inner Eurasia and its new states.  April 1996 – March 2000. 

•  Advised Dr. Emil Pain, Special Advisor to President Boris Yeltsin, regarding peace prospects in the Chechen war, with continuing advice given to the Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C., on this conflict. February - March 1996. 

•  Advised General Jokhar Dudaev on peace prospects prior to his assassination on April 21, 1996.  

•  Participated in preventive diplomacy negotiations between the Abkhazians and Georgians, entitled Finding Common Cause in the Caucasus, sponsored by the Center for Political Leadership and Participation, the Center for International Development and Conflict Management, and Partners in Conflict Program, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.  20  October 1995. 

•  Advised the OSCE mission to Grozny, and with Adam Wasserman, Policy Planning, State Department.  March 1995. 

•  Formulated peace initiatives for the late General Jokhar Dudaev of Chechnia, for Ambassador Thomas Pickering, U.S. Embassy, Moscow, and for officials of the Russian Embassy, Washington.  I am responsible for having suggested that Moscow deal with Chechen Field Commander (now President) Aslan Maskhadov. February 1995 to April 1996 

•  Advised (regarding the Russo-Chechen war)

            Ambassador Thomas R. Pickering, U.S. Embassy, Moscow

            Thomas Graham, First Secretary, Political Section, U.S. Embassy, Moscow,

            George Kolt, National Intelligence Officer, Russia-Eurasia, National Intelligence Council, Washington, D.C.,

            Mark Nichols, head of the Emergency Chechnia group, USAID and Department of State, Washington, D.C., and

            the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.

            January 1995 – August 1996. 

•  Advised Mr. Dennis Pluchinsky, US Department of State, Intelligence and Threat Analysis, Office of Diplomatic Security, regarding security issues in the Caucasus.  June –December 1994. 

  The President of the Chechen-Ingush Society of North America, Prof. Mohammed Shashani, delivered my invited paper, "A Brief Comment Upon Chechen - Russian Relations," for me at an international conference in Grozny, capital of the self-proclaimed Chechen Republic.  20-24  May 1994. 

•  Worked with the Center for Sustainable Democracy in Georgia (an affiliate of the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis and the Gorbachev Foundation).  May 1994. 

•  Worked with USIA to organize visits of Russian and Caucasian dignitaries to the United States.  May 1994. 

•  Advised Policy Planning, of State Department, and the National Intelligence Officer for Russia - Eurasia, National Intelligence Council on tensions in the North Caucasus.  7-20 March 1994. 

•  Delivered a briefing to a group at the United States Department of State regarding the Caucasus generally and Abkhazia and Georgia specifically.  I also consulted with a top official, Thomas Graham, in Policy Planning.  2 March 1994. 

•  Advised Vladislav Ardzinba, Chairman of Abkhazia and Stanislav Lakoba, Speaker of the Abkhazian Parliament, during their visit to the United Nations, Geneva and New York, February 1994 and March 1994. 

•  Advised the Secretary General of the United Nations, Dr. Butros-Ghali, as well as people at State Department and the National Intelligence Council, regarding Russian assistance in Bosnia.  I was told that this played a key role in recruiting Russian assistance in this conflict. 14 February 1994. 

•  I was instrumental in arranging a US tourist visa for Jokhar Dudaev, but misadventures in Istanbul precluding his utilizing it, January 1994. 

•  In March, July, and August 1993 I issued a report on current happenings and their possible significance, entitled "Caucasus Update," on an occasional basis to a circle of twenty-five interested officials, analysts, and scholars. 

•  Advised the Second Secretary, Political Section, United States Embassy, Moscow on the Caucasus. for in this capacity I interviewed:

            Alan Chochiev, Speaker of the Parliament, South Ossetia;

            Aleksandr Dzasokhov, MP in Russian Parliament;

            Igor Akhba, Plenipotentiary for Abkhazia in Russia;

            Aleks Iskandarian, Armenian journalist;

            Alan Kasaev, Ossetian journalist, head of Caucasus Research Center;

            Musa Shanibov, President, Confederation of Caucasian Peoples;

            Anatoli Emouzov, Foreign Minister, Kabardino-Balkaria;

            Sergei Akopov, Chief of Protocol, Kabardino-Balkaria;

            Svetlana Danilova, MP in Kabardino-Balkarian Parliament and leader of the

                  Circassian Jewish Community of Nalchik;

            Aslan Jarimov, President of Adygheya;

            Ruslan Panush, Foreign Minister, Adygheya.  August 1993. 

•  Advised Dr. Yuri Kalmykov, Minister of Justice of the Russian Federation, former PM of the Russian Parliament, President of the International Circassian Association, representing the Confederation of Caucasian Peoples in Washington, 24-26 February 1993. 

•  The Voice of America, the United States Information Agency, advisor on the Caucasus, 1992. 

•  Library of Congress (Foreign Affairs and national Defence division), advisor on strategic matters concerning the Caucasus, (1992-3) 

•  United States Department of State (to the Russian Sub-Desk of the Independent States and Commonwealth Affairs Desk, and to the Strategic Planning office), advisor on strategic matters concerning the Caucasus, (1992-3). 

•  The first Abkhazian Human Rights Mission to Washington, D.C., (head delegate Dr. Natela Akaba), advisor, accompanying the group on their rounds of meetings and placing their position into a wider Caucasian context for various officials, 4-10 December 1992. 

•  The Republic of Adygheya (Russian Confederation), advisor to President. Aslan Jarim(ov), June, 1992.

Human Rights Efforts


•  Cooperated with Professor Charles Fairbanks, School of Advanced International Studies, Paul H. Nitze School of Diplomacy, Johns Hopkins University and former Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights under President Reagan, and Dennis Culkin, USAID, to organize a relief effort for Chechnia,  June – September 1996. 

•  Worked with USAID and with the government of the Republic of Adygheya, Russian Federation, to organize pilot missions for helping maimed and injured victims of the Chechen war by establishing medical and rehabilitation centers in the North Caucasus and South Russia.  September – November 1995. 

•  Consulted for Open Society Institute, Forced Migration Project, "Repatriation in Georgia," (written by Kathleen Hunt), March. 1995. 

•  Consulted for the World Rehabilitation Fund, New York, New York, regarding their manufacturing of orthoses and prostheses in Yerevan, Armenia.  August – September 1994. 

•  Advised Ambassador Madeleine Albright's office regarding refugee matters in Abkhazia – Georgia.  September 1994. 

•  Worked with Dr. Diane Roazen of University of Massachusetts, Boston, and with the US Department of State and USAID in arranging for a visa for a child to be flown to the USA for heart surgery (the eight year old son of a cabinet minister of the Chechen government).  May – August 1994. 

•  Initiated a program with USAID and the United Methodist Committee on Relief to bring maimed women and children to a hospital in Yerevan (Armenia), Eraboni, which had advanced plastic surgery facilities, March – September 1994.  This project, in victims from both sides were thrown together and shared in their own rehabilitation, served as the nucleus for what has since become, under Dr. Manoog Kaprielian, the world-wide War Victim's Project, which has had notable success because of its practice of shared rehabilitation. 

•  Consulted for Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, both with their New York and Washington branches, proofing their reports on various conflicts in the Caucasus (written by Christopher Panico), 1993. 

•  Inspected a refugee facility housing Abkhazian orphans and widows, and examined some of the wounded children from the Abkhaz – Georgian War, in Maikop, Adygheya, Russian Federation.  August 1993. 

•  Advised the second Abkhazian Human Rights Mission to Washington, 24-26 February 1993.   

•  Participant in the “Breakaway section on the Caucasus,” at the Carter Center, Emory University, International Negotiation Network Consultation, 2nd annual consultation. Exploratory talks between the Georgians and Abkhazians were begun as a result of my efforts.  17-19 February 1993. 

•  Lobbied members of the U.S. Congress for human rights issues with Mr. Joseph Cella for the Abkhaz American Human Rights Committee.  4-5 February 1993.

•  Advisor on human rights and strategic matters concerning the Caucasus to the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). 1992-3. 

•  Advisor on human rights and strategic matters concerning the Caucasus to the High Commissioner on Nationalities, UN, The Hague.  1992-3. 

•  CSCE (United States Congress), advisor on human rights and strategic matters concerning the Caucasus, (1992-3)

Professional Bodies


  • Member, Board of Directors, Nassip Foundation (Circassian), 2012
  • Member, American Anthropological Association, 2011 – 12
  • Member, Origins Institute, 2007 
  • Mythology Book Review Editor, in collaboration with Dean Miller, Journal of Indo-European Studies, June 7, 2005 – present.
  • Member, Board of Directors, The Atlantic Council of Canada, November 2002 - present (general member from 2000)
  • Member, Central Eurasian Studies Society, October 2000 – present
  • Member, Board of Directors, Central Eurasian Studies Society, January 2001 -January 2003
  • Advisory Board on Central Asia and the Caucasus, The Atlantic Council of the United States, March 1998 - 2000
  • Advisory Board, U.S. - Azerbaijan Council, February 1997 - 2000
  • Editorial Board, Cryptozoology, January 1997 – 2003
  • Honorary member of the Cherkess Cultural Society of Holland (1990)
  • Senior Research Associate, Institute for the Study of Human Issues (ISHI), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1979-1982)